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The proper time between two events is indicated by a clock present at both events.
It is invariant, i.e., in all inertial frames it is agreed that this time is indicated by that clock.
It was found that Left: Observer at rest measures time 2L/c between co-local events of light signal generation at A and arrival at A.
Right: Events according to an observer moving to the left of the setup: bottom mirror A when signal is generated at time t'=0, top mirror B when signal gets reflected at time t'=D/c, bottom mirror A when signal returns at time t'=2D/c This constancy of the speed of light means that, counter to intuition, speeds of material objects and light are not additive.
Keeping the speed of light constant for all inertial observers, requires a lengthening of the period of this clock from the moving observer's perspective.
That is to say, in a frame moving relative to the local clock, this clock will appear to be running more slowly.
Straightforward application of the Pythagorean theorem leads to the well-known prediction of special relativity: The total time for the light pulse to trace its path is given by Given a certain frame of reference, and the "stationary" observer described earlier, if a second observer accompanied the "moving" clock, each of the observers would perceive the other's clock as ticking at a slower rate than their own local clock, due to them both perceiving the other to be the one that's in motion relative to their own stationary frame of reference.
Common sense would dictate that, if the passage of time has slowed for a moving object, said object would observe the external world's time to be correspondingly sped up.
With current technology severely limiting the velocity of space travel, however, the differences experienced in practice are minuscule: after 6 months on the International Space Station (ISS) (which orbits Earth at a speed of about 7,700 m/s) an astronaut would have aged about 0.005 seconds less than those on Earth.The Hafele and Keating experiment involved flying planes around the world with atomic clocks on board.Upon the trips' completion the clocks were compared to a static, ground based atomic clock.This case is sometimes called special relativistic time dilation.The faster the relative velocity, the greater the time dilation between one another, with the rate of time reaching zero as one approaches the speed of light (299,792,458 m/s).